BC (Before Columbus) Earliest archaeological evidence of humans in North America 50,000 to 100,000 years ago. Before the first contact with Europeans, the people had established successful, thriving communities. Some call this period the prehistoric period, just after the Ice Age. They had developed great governing social orders known today as the clan system. They established a trade and communications network and practiced their own medicines. The Anishinaabek have their own creation story, and many of the traditional ceremonies are still celebrated to this day.
1492 Columbus arrived on the East Coast.
1620 First contact occurred early in this century between the Anishinaabek and the French, and trade begins. Life begins to change with the exchange of European goods.
1751 Ben Franklin studied the Iroquois Confederacy and used it as model for the U.S. Constitution. Democracy was established and functioning prior to U.S. independence.
1763 End of seven years’ war with Pontiac. The first use of germ warfare takes place against the Anishinaabek. Lord Amherst arranged a meeting with the Anishinaabek in Detroit, Michigan. Many attended, and at the end of the meeting Lord Amherst gave all the Anishinaabe families a gift and instructed them not to open the gifts till they arrived in their communities. These gifts were blankets, but they were infected with smallpox. In Anishinaabe culture, a blanket represents love. Lord Amherst also learned a ceremony called a giveaway and used it against the Anishinaabe people. Many communities of Anishinaabe people died from this disease.
1787 Northwest Ordinance declares that beyond the Allegheny Mountains, in a section of the Appalachians extending from Pennsylvania to Virginia, Indian lands will never be taken without the Indians’ consent. Lands were also set aside specifically for educational purposes for indigenous tribes.
1789 Constitution ratified, specifically upholding treaties made with Indians as Law of the Land.
1795 U.S. began making treaties with the tribes of Michigan. The treaty era lasted about 60 years.
1812 War of 1812 with Tecumseh.
1821 Treaty of Chicago, which the Little River Band signed.
1822 Johnson v. McIntosh recognizes Indian rights to land.
1830 Indian Removal Act goes into effect by President Andrew Jackson.
1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia recognizes a distinct society and establishes the Indians as a domestic dependent nation, ruling in their favor, but the president does not enforce it. The result is the Trail of Tears.
1831 Worchester v. Georgia established federal jurisdiction over Indian tribes and the states have none.
1832 Some bands of the Ottawa tribe were moved to Kansas, and then in 1867, five hundred of them were relocated to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) where they remain to this day (Miami Oklahoma).
1836 Treaty of Washington. Ottawa and Chippewa bands cede territory to U.S. which becomes Michigan in 1837. Article IV of this treaty provided for various educational provisions, teachers, schools and books in their own language.
1855 Treaty of Detroit. An attempt to correct problems with the 1836 treaty. Dissolves the Ottawa / Chippewa tribe in favor of smaller bands. At this time, land allotments were given to individuals, which proved to be disastrous. Anishinaabe philosophy did not promote land ownership. Many tactics were used to obtain land from individuals. Registration of bands begins.
1870 Creation of residential schools. Assimilation begins. Many Anishinaabe children were removed from their homes and put into these schools. Once in these schools, the children were instructed that they were not allowed to speak in their native language anymore or they would be punished. Many children lost their language at this time. Some children came back to their communities abused. At this time, the government did nothing to protect Anishinaabe children from being abused by adults. It was the intent to destroy the language within the indigenous people of America.
Indian Residential School Survey
It is my belief that to this day every native person is still affected by the Residential School era . Many lost their native language during this era. Read more and fill out the survey...
1871 Treaty-making ends, but the continued validity of all treaties previously made is specifically acknowledged.
1882 Federal act to allow abandoned military installations to be used as residential schools.
1887 General Allotment Act / Dawes Act. Distribution of lands to individuals nationally.
1890 Wounded Knee Massacre. Last major confrontation of Indian wars. Twenty-two soldiers were given medals of honor after 200 men, women and children were killed while surrendering.
1898 Curtis Act strips tribes of most of their governmental power.
1924 Indian Citizen Act. Native American Indians are recognized as U.S. citizens. Many Anishinaabe men fought in the First World War and were questioned about their citizenship.
1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Establishes tribal councils as we know them today.
1935 Little River Band’s first recognition attempt.
1946 Indian Claims Commission allows tribes to bring suit against the federal government for illegal deals and underpayment of sales.
1948 Little River Band‘s second recognition attempt.
1953 Indian termination policy. Termination and relocation of tribes.
1970 Little River Band 3rd recognition attempt.
1973 Indian Self-Determination and Education Act. Gives tribes authority to take over and operate their own programs.
1976 Michigan Tuition Waiver Act. State legislation. States agrees to pay for Indian education.
1977 Religious Freedom Act.
1978 Indian Child Welfare Act.
1979 Seminoles in Florida establish first high-stakes bingo.
1983 The Voight Decision was made on fishing while fishing litigation was ongoing. Fishing rights have not been tested.
1985 Federal Gaming Act is introduced.
1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Tribes can begin repatriating sacred objects and human remains housed in public museums.
1991 Fishing rights tentatively resolved.
1991 Native American Language Preservation Act. Funds become available to address this issue.
1993 The first annual language/culture event is held in Alden, Michigan. This event still takes place in Manistee every year. Many Anishinaabe people gather because of the Anishinaabe language and culture.
1994 Little River Band reaffirmed to federal status. Federal government says that that there was a lack of status because of a clerical mistake.
1994 Amendments to the Federal Gaming Act introduced. Religious Freedom Act amended.
2000 A language program is organized by Kenny Pheasant and elders Jonnie Sam and Doris Wabsis in Manistee, Michigan. This language program is dedicated to the memory of Jonnie Sam and Doris Wabsis.
2002 Kenny Pheasant, from the Anishinaabe nation, begins teaching a social studies program at Kennedy Elementary school in Manistee, Michigan. Students study Anishinaabe culture and history and learn one of the oldest languages in North America, Anishinaabemowin.